First start your emulator in writable mode. Put your virtual device name after -avd parameter.

$ANDROID_HOME/emulator/emulator -avd Samsung_Galaxy_S7_API_24 -writable-system

Uninstall old version of Chrome.

adb root
adb remount
adb shell
cd /system/app
rm Chrome -f -rR
cd /data/data
rm -r

Restart the emulator.

Download Chrome version that you want to install.

Then install it.

adb -s emulator-5554 install ~/Downloads/\(x86\)\(nodpi\) 

If you have just one device connected to adb you may skip -s switch. To get names of connected devices you may use

adb devices -l